Sunday, January 28, 2018

Public transport promotes walking

The quality of public transit, and the degree it is integrated into a community, significantly
affects travel activity. As service quality improves and communities become more transitoriented,
residents tend to own fewer vehicles, drive less and rely more on alternative modes
(walking, cycling and public transit) than they otherwise would (ICF 2008; Litman 2007).

Walking to public transit: steps to help meet physical activity recommendations.

PubMed - NCBI: "Americans who use transit spend a median of 19 minutes daily walking to and from transit; 29% achieve > or =30 minutes of physical activity a day solely by walking to and from transit. In multivariate analysis, rail users, minorities, people in households earning <$15,000 a year, and people in high-density urban areas were more likely to spend > or =30 minutes walking to and from transit daily."

Friday, February 3, 2017

PM Pollution from electric cars no better than internal combustion cars

However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1e3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Nonexhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic

Saturday, December 10, 2016

2003 Yale study of Automobile Externalities and Free Transit

...Since the abolishment of all transit fares for the entire urban area in July 1997, ridership has increased by more than 1,000 percent (City of Hasselt 2000). The reasoning behind the idea of fare free transit is the following: A considerable modal shift from car travel to public transportation makes the construction of new roads unnecessary, and existing roads can even be built back...

Monday, November 28, 2016

Academic study of US drop in vehicle miles

...the number of miles driven by the average American has been falling. Young Americans have  experienced the greatest changes: driving less; taking transit, biking and walking more; and seeking out places to live in cities and walkable communities where driving is an option, not a necessity.


Friday, November 18, 2016

The time lost paying fares

"Stillorgan QBC Dwell Time Analysis" by David O'Connor and Philip Kavanagh: " Pre-paid tickets are the most popular and fastest method of payment with 55% of those surveyed using this method. Pre-paid ticket users take on average 7 seconds to board. There is no time-saving for LEAP Card (e-purse) users, who take on average 10 seconds to board (being the same for cash payers). The findings present evidence to support the implementation of off-board ticket purchase and/or the removal of both cash and e-purse ticket transactions from services. Service planning improvements, such as the consolidation of stops, multi-door entry/exit systems and measures to improve performance at junctions, are also suggested."

Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact not Possible

PLOS ONE: "The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing."